Spike-antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccination by demographic and clinical factors in a prospective community cohort study

Vaccination constitutes the best long-term solution against Coronavirus Disease-2019; however, vaccine-derived immunity may not protect all groups equally, and the durability of protective antibodies may be short. We evaluate Spike-antibody responses following BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1-S vaccination amongst SARS-CoV2-naive adults across England and Wales enrolled in a prospective cohort study (Virus Watch). Here we show BNT162b2 recipients achieved higher peak antibody levels after two doses; however, both groups experience substantial antibody waning over time. In 8356 individuals submitting a sample ≥28 days after Dose 2, we observe significantly reduced Spike-antibody levels following two doses amongst individuals reporting conditions and therapies that cause immunosuppression. After adjusting for these, several common chronic conditions also appear to attenuate the antibody response. These findings suggest the need to continue prioritising vulnerable groups, who have been vaccinated earliest and have the most attenuated antibody responses, for future boosters.


Author list



  1. Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, UK. 
  2. Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, UK. 
  3. Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK. 
  4. Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.


Madhumita Shrotri1, Ellen Fragaszy1,2, Vincent Nguyen1, Annalan M. D. Navaratnam1, Cyril Geismar1, Sarah Beale3, Jana Kovar3, Thomas E. Byrne1, Wing Lam Erica Fong1, Parth Patel1, Anna Aryee1, Isobel Braithwaite1, Anne M. Johnson4, Alison Rodger4, Andrew C. Hayward3 & Robert W. Aldridge1

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2


Nature - Communications