Effectiveness of BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccination in prevention of hospitalisations and severe disease in adults with SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant between June 2021 and July 2022: A prospective test negative case–control study


Whilst other studies have reported the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against hospitalisation, including emergency department or intensive care admission, few have assessed effectiveness against other more clinically robust indices of COVID-19 severity.


A prospective single-centre test-negative design case–control study of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 disease or other acute respiratory disease between 1 June 2021 and 20 July 2022. We assessed VE (vaccine effectiveness) against hospitalisation, length of stay [LOS] >3 days, WHO COVID Score >5 and supplementary oxygen FiO2 (fraction inspired oxygen) >28%, conducting regression analyses controlling for age, gender, index of multiple deprivation, Charlson comorbidity index, time, and community infection prevalence.


935 controls and 546 cases were hospitalised during the Delta period, with 721 controls and 372 cases hospitalised during the Omicron study period. Two-dose BNT162b2 was associated with VE 82.5% [95% confidence interval 76.2%–87.2%] against hospitalisation following Delta infection, 63.3% [26.9–81.8%], 58.5% [24.8–77.3%], and 51.5% [16.7–72.1%] against LOS >3 days, WHO COVID Score >5, and requirement for FiO2 >28% respectively. Three-dose BNT162b2 protection against hospitalisation with Omicron infection was 30.9% [5.9–49.3%], with sensitivity analyses ranging from 28.8–72.6%. Protection against LOS >3 days, WHO COVID Score >5 and requirement for FiO2 >28% was 56.1% [20.6–76.5%], 58.8% [31.2–75.8%], and 41.5% [−0.4–66.3%], respectively. In the UK, BNT162b2 was prioritised for high-risk individuals and those aged >75 years. In the latter group we found a higher estimate of VE against hospitalisation of 47.2% [16.8–66.6%].


BNT162b2 vaccination results in risk reductions for hospitalisation and multiple patient outcomes following Delta and Omicron COVID-19 infection, particularly in older adults. BNT162b2 remains effective against severe SARS-CoV-2 disease.

Author list



  1. Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK
  2. Bristol Vaccine Centre, Population Health Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
  3. Academic Respiratory Unit, University of Bristol, UK
  4. Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, UHBW NHS Trust, Bristol, UK


Anastasia Chatzilen1,5 Catherine Hyams,2,3,5 Rob Challen,1 Robin Marlow,2 Jade King,4 David Adegbite,2 Jane Kinney,2 Madeleine Clout,2 Nick Maskell,3 Jennifer Oliver,2 Leon Danon,1 and Adam Finn,2 On behalf of the Avon CAP Research Group

Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2


The Lancet - Regional Health