Search our database of publications on vaccines for COVID-19. These include published scientific papers, preprints and policy reports, and all are from teams based in the UK.
This research has not been peer-reviewed. It is a preliminary report that should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice or health-related behaviour, or be reported in news media as established information.
The effect of immune checkpoint blockade on COVID-19 immunity is unclear. In this study, we determine whether immune checkpoint blockade expanded age-associated B cells (ABCs) are similar to those present in other conditions, and whether they enhance or detract from the COVID-19 vaccine responses. First, we use single cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq) to show that ABCs arising from distinct aetiologies have common transcriptional profiles and may be further subdivided according to expression of genes associated with different immune functions, including the autoimmune regulator (AIRE). Next, we perform detailed longitudinal profiling of the COVID-19 vaccination response in patients. Finally, we show that high pre-vaccination ABC frequency correlates with decreased levels of antigen-specific memory B cells, and reduced magnitude and longevity of neutralising capacity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Expansion of ABCs is a biomarker for individuals with cancer requiring additional or more frequent booster immunisation against COVID-19.